ISSN 0320-961X (Print)
ISSN 0320-961X (Online)

Для цитирования:

Барышников А. Е. Головы римских императорских статуй в реках Альбиона: к проблеме интерпретации источников //Античный мир и археология. 2010. Т. 14, вып. 14. С. 163-172.

This is an open access article distributed under the terms of Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC-BY 4.0).
Полный текст в формате PDF(Ru):
(загрузок: 9)
Язык публикации: 
Тип статьи: 
Научная статья

Головы римских императорских статуй в реках Альбиона: к проблеме интерпретации источников

Барышников Антон Ералыевич, Нижегородский государственный университет им. Н. И. Лобачевского

This paper considers a group of statuary heads found in Britain. They all, whether made of marble or bronze, were parts of emperors’ sculptures but were cut off and thrown into the rivers (heads of Claudius and Hadrian are best-known). Motives of beheading these statues are uncertain. Some scholars (e. g. M. S. Sadovskaya) suggested that the heads were cut off by rebellious Britons. We offer another explanation based on several arguments. Firstly, rivers and springs, lakes and bogs were sacred places for Britons. Material objects such as jewelry and rarer human bodies were placed into their waters as votive offerings. Secondly, we can notice that such sacred places were linked with the Celtic cult of human head, and the best-known example of this connection is the group human skulls found in the river Walbrook. Old religious traditions of Britain interacted with new imperial customs such as a cult of the Emperor. The beheading of statues and the placement of their heads into the water could be the part of the ritual based on mixing Roman and British habits, a result of cultural interaction in the province, British interpretation of Roman imperial cult. Here we can draw an analogy with small busts found in the shrines of Willingham Fen, Llanio etc. It must be said that the main problem is lack of sources. We can study only few heads and for most cases the context is unclear. So our hypothesis must be checked again later when new artifacts will be found.

Ключевые слова: 
Список источников: 

Виноградов П.Г. Средневековое поместье в Англии. СПб., 1911.

Максимова М.И. Техника промышленности. Металлообработка // Эллинистическая техника. М., 1948.

Садовская М.С. Романизация провинции Британия (I–II вв. н. э.) // УЗ МГПИ им. В.И. Ленина. Из истории древнего Рима. М., 1960.

Садовская М.С. Вопросы истории Римской Британии в английской исторической литературе // ВДИ. 1973. № 3.

Садовская М.С. Культ императора в Римской Британии // Страны Средиземноморья в античную и средневековую эпохи. Горький, 1985.

Широкова Н.С. Мрамор из Ториньи // АМА. 1983. Вып. 5.

Штаерман Е.М. Кризис рабовладельческого строя в Западных провинциях Римской империи. М., 1957.

Alfoldi A. The bronze mace from Willingham Fen, Cambridgeshire // JRS. 1949. Vol. 39.

Bradley R., Gordon K. Human skulls from the river Thames, their dating and significance // Antiquity. 1988. Vol. 62.

Brothwell D. The Bogman and the archaeology of people. L., 1986.

Drury P.J., Bayley J., Blagg T.F.C., Evans J., Going C.J., Hassall M.W.C., Niblett K., Wickenden N.P. The temple of Claudius at Colchester reconsidered // Britannia. 1984. Vol. 15.

Fishwick D. Imperial scepter heads in Roman Britain // Britannia. 1988. Vol. 19.

Freeman P.W.M. «Romanisation» and Roman material culture. Review of Millett, 1990 // JRA. Vol. 6.

Haverfield F. Roman London // JRS. 1911. Vol. 1.

Haverfield F. Notes on the Agricola // Classical Review. 1914. Vol. 28.

Haverfield F. Romanization of Britain. L., 1924.

Henig M. The art of Roman Britain. L., 1995.

Hingley R. The ‘legacy’ of Rome: the rise, decline and fall of the theory of Romanization // Roman Imperialism: Post Colonial Perspectives / Ed. J. Webster, N. Cooper. Leicester, 1996.

Hingley R. Globalizing Roman culture: unity, diversity and empire. L., 2005.

Lawson A.K., Oddy W.A., Craddock P.T. A fragment of life-size equine statuary from Ashill, Norfolk // Britannia. 1986. Vol. 17.

Lewis M. Temples in Roman Britain. Cambr., 1966.

Macdonald G. Note on some fragments of imperial statues and of a statuette of victory // JRS. 1926. Vol. 16.

Maloney C., de Moulins D. The Archaeology of Roman London. L., 1990. Vol. I. The upper Walbrook in Roman period.

Mattingly D. Vulgar and weak ‘Romanization’, or time for a paradigm shift? The review of Italy and the West: comparative issues of Romanization edited by S. Keay and N. Terrenato // JRA. 2002. Vol. 15.

Mattusch C.C. Classical bronzes: the art and craft of Greek and Roman statuary. Ithaca, N. Y., 1996.

Millett M. Roman Britain. Cambr., 2005.

Millett M. The Romanization of Britain. An essay in archaeological interpretation. Cambr., 2005.

Porter T. Roman Britain. L., 1997.

Ross A. Pagan Celtic Britain. L., 1967.

Ross A., Robins D. The life and death of a Druid prince. L., 1991.

Stewart P. Statues in Roman society. Oxf., 2003.

Terrenato N. The Romanization of Italy: global acculturation or cultural bricolage? // TRAC. 97. Oxf., 1998.

Toynbee J.M.C., Fein O. Art in Roman Britain. L., 1963.

Turnbull P., Jones R.F.J. An imperial portret from Chester-le-street, Co. Durham // Britannia. 1979. Vol. 10.

Webster J. Sanctuaries and sacred places // Celtic World. L., 1995.

Webster J. Creolizing the Roman provinces // AJA. 2001. Vol. 105. No. 2.

Поступила в редакцию: 
Принята к публикации: