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История добродетельной Лукреции: между литературой, правом и ритуалом

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The author follows the popular belief that the history of Lucretia was a product of Hellenistic literature which in turn borrowed the plot from ancient mythology. The story was included in the Roman historical tradition quite early, possibly before Fabius Pictor, who borrowed it from someone of his Greek predecessors. In different stages of the formation of the historical tradition, the meaning of the story varied. Originally, it possibly was the story of two brothers, one of whom tempted the wife of another (or she seduced him). From Herodotus’ narration of the Lydian king Candaulos and Gyges, this plot passed to the history of the regal Rome, where the story was influenced by Roman religious rites, in particular it was included in the context of a New Year ceremony which was accompanied by the rituals of Regifugium and Equirria at the end of February.

At the beginning, the story most likely emphasized an Etruscan origin of the tyrannical king, while Lucretia personified the Latin mother-land which was desecrated by the rapist. However, the Roman annalists brought in the relationship between the heroes of the history customs and rules suitable to the Roman family of the second and early first centuries BC. At the same time, the use of the story by Accius, the late-second-century writer of tragedies, provided the Tarquins with the features of the Atrides family and Lucretia with the features of a Roman matron. The story became a useful model for the late-Republican lawyers who discussed the problems of the family law. Under the Augustan epoch, Lucretia’s chastity symbolized the ideal of the Roman matron and was considered throughout the context of the marriage legislation.

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Received: 
23.07.2008
Accepted: 
14.10.2008
Published: 
26.12.2008